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Understanding cauda equina syndrome and your legal options



Article by Eddie Jones, Partner in Medical Negligence at JMW Solicitors.

Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a severe condition that requires immediate medical attention to prevent lasting damage.

This comprehensive article aims to highlight the intricacies of CES, detailing its causes, symptoms, and the critical nature of prompt diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, it will explore the legal avenues available for patients who have suffered from misdiagnosis or delayed treatment.

What is Cauda Equina Syndrome?

Cauda equina syndrome occurs when the nerve roots in the lumbar spine are compressed, disrupting sensory and motor function to the lower limbs, bowel, bladder and sexual organs. The term “cauda equina” is Latin for “horse’s tail,” and relates to the appearance of the nerve roots at the end of the spinal cord.

Causes of Cauda Equina Syndrome

Cauda equina syndrome typically results from a significant narrowing of the spinal canal, a condition known as spinal stenosis. This can occur in a number of ways:

Lumbar Disc Herniation

A major cause of CES is lumbar disc herniation. Intervertebral discs act as cushions between the bones (vertebrae) in your spine. When herniation occurs, the soft centre of a spinal disc pushes through a crack in the tougher exterior casing. This protrusion can compress the nerve roots in the lumbar region.

Factors leading to disc herniation include age-related wear and tear (disc degeneration), lifting heavy objects improperly, or sudden trauma. The severity of the compression and the specific nerves affected can vary, leading to a range of symptoms from mild pain to severe neurological impairment.


Traumatic events, such as car accidents, falls or sports injuries, can cause fractures or dislocations in the vertebrae. These acute injuries can instantly narrow the spinal canal, pressing on the cauda equina. In some cases, the onset of CES following trauma is immediate, while in others, swelling or bleeding may gradually lead to compression.

The exact nature of the injury, as well as the speed and quality of medical response, can significantly influence outcomes.


Both benign and malignant growths within or adjacent to the spinal canal can impinge on the cauda equina. Tumours might originate in the spine itself (primary tumours) or spread from other body parts (metastatic tumours). As a tumour grows, it can compress nerve roots directly, or cause secondary issues like bone degradation or increased pressure due to swelling, further narrowing the space available for nerves.

Infections or Inflammatory Conditions

Infections such as spinal epidural abscesses can lead to the rapid onset of CES. These infections accumulate pus and inflamed tissue in or around the spinal cord, creating pressure. Similarly, inflammatory conditions like ankylosing spondylitis can lead to chronic inflammation of the spine and surrounding tissues, eventually causing stenosis. These conditions often develop more slowly, but acute exacerbations can trigger sudden CES symptoms.

Each of these causes can independently or collectively contribute to the development of CES. The progression and severity of the syndrome can vary significantly based on the underlying issue, the speed of onset, and the patient’s overall health. Understanding these causes is crucial for healthcare providers to diagnose CES accurately and initiate the appropriate treatment promptly, thereby minimising the risk of permanent damage.

Symptoms of Cauda Equina Syndrome

Cauda equina syndrome presents with  a number of symptoms, including:

Severe Lower Back Pain

The onset of CES is often marked by intense, debilitating lower back pain. This pain is typically a result of nerve compression and can radiate to the lower limbs. It may be exacerbated by movements such as bending, lifting or twisting. The nature of the pain can vary; some patients describe it as a sharp, shooting pain, while others experience a dull, constant ache. Back pain alone is not a sign of CES, but it can often accompany the classic red flags of the condition detailed below. 

Neurological Impairments

Patients may experience weakness or paralysis in the legs, making it difficult to stand or walk. This weakness might progress rapidly, leading to a significant loss of mobility. There also may be sensory deficits. Numbness or a tingling sensation often occurs in the legs, feet/toes, groin or buttocks. The specific pattern of numbness can provide clues about which nerves are compressed. An alteration or loss of reflexes in the lower limbs is also common, indicating nerve involvement.

Bladder and Bowel Dysfunction

Individuals may struggle to pass urine due to no longer feeling the urge to go, or experiencing reduced flow.  The inability to urinate (despite a full bladder) or a lack of sensation when the bladder is full is particularly indicative of CES, eventually leading to incontinence. Loss of control over bowel movements or constipation can also be signs. Patients might also lose the sensation of needing to defecate, leading to passive soiling.

Saddle Anaesthesia

A distinctive symptom of CES is saddle anaesthesia, where there’s a loss of sensation in areas that would touch a saddle when riding a horse. This includes the buttocks, perineum, genitals and inner thighs. The loss of sensation can range from mild numbness to complete anaesthesia.

Recognising these symptoms promptly is essential for preventing irreversible damage. The longer the nerves remain compressed, the higher the chance of permanent issues such as chronic pain, permanent neurological damage, irreversible bladder or bowel dysfunction, and sexual dysfunction.

What is Your Legal Recourse?

The rapid onset and progression of CES means that misdiagnosis or delays in treatment are not uncommon. When medical negligence leads to worsened outcomes, patients have the right to seek legal recourse. Patients who have suffered due to misdiagnosis or delayed treatment of CES can pursue legal action through medical negligence claims. Key considerations include:

Duty of Care

This involves proving that a healthcare provider-patient relationship existed, establishing the healthcare provider’s duty to provide care that meets accepted medical standards.

In the context of CES, the duty of care would involve timely and appropriate responses to symptoms, accurate diagnosis, and prompt, effective treatment.The medical staff providing the treatment could include hospital doctors, GPs, nurses and physiotherapists. All would owe a duty of care to the patients they are treating.

Breach of Standard of Care 

The expected level of care is typically based on what a reasonably competent medical professional in a similar field and situation would have provided. To prove a breach in a CES case, it’s necessary to demonstrate that the healthcare provider deviated from standard practices. This could involve delayed diagnosis, misinterpretation of symptoms, failure to order appropriate tests, or delays in treatment.

Expert evidence 

Medical experts play a crucial role in establishing the standard of care, how it was breached and whether this caused the patient’s injury.. They can comment on whether the actions (or inactions) of the healthcare provider were in line with what other professionals would have done under similar circumstances. A claim for compensation can only succeed if medical experts provide reports that state the care was negligent and it caused harm. 


It must be shown that the breach of duty directly caused the worsened condition of the patient. In CES cases, this means demonstrating that the outcome would have been different had the healthcare provider acted appropriately. Causation can be complex to prove, especially when dealing with a condition that can rapidly progress like CES. The legal team needs to clearly establish that the harm was not simply due to the underlying condition, but directly due to the negligence.

In all cases, cauda equina syndrome must be treated as a medical emergency that demands immediate action to prevent serious, long-lasting harm. Understanding the symptoms and causes is vital for timely diagnosis and intervention. However, when medical professionals fail to provide the appropriate standard of care, legal avenues are available for patients to seek justice and compensation. It’s a complex interplay of medical understanding and legal rights that underscores the importance of both prompt medical attention and specialist legal advice in cases of CES.