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The electric question: where are all the WAVs?

Brotherwood assess the options around electric power available to those looking for a Wheelchair Accessible Vehicle



The vehicle manufacturing industry has always been driven by new technologies. From the invention of the seatbelt in the mid-1900s, to more recent developments such as anti-lock braking systems in the 1970s and turn of the century innovations including adaptive cruise control, research and development of technology has been at the forefront of car design for over a century.

Through legislative changes these technologies have become standard across the car industry, improving safety, user experience and environmental impact – benefits which have fed through to all motorists, including people with disabilities and wheelchair users, who require equal access to a vehicle for their independent mobility.

The latest technological development which has proved to be a major turning point in the car industry is the accelerated development of battery powered Electric Vehicles, which, from a small niche has grown to represent a significant segment of new UK car sales, with over 50 per cent of new cars registered in so far 2022 including some form of electrification.

With new legislation mandating the end of the internal combustion engine (ICE) by 2030, every new private car sold by 2030 is expected to be battery powered – pending any other alternative fuels that may be developed in the meantime.


A Lack of Choice

Across the new car market, manufacturers are responding to the legislative changes by releasing battery-powered models in almost every segment. However, unlike previous technologies, electric power has not yet been made widely available to those looking for a Wheelchair Accessible Vehicle (WAV) – leading to wheelchair users and their families wondering why the current choice of new Wheelchair Accessible Vehicles available today does not include an equal choice of electric models, as one would find when looking for a small hatchback or family SUV.


WAV Conversion – How and Why

To answer this question, we must first look at exactly how Wheelchair Accessible Vehicles are made. Most WAVs sold in the UK today are classed as small/medium vehicles, with compact models such as the Volkswagen Caddy Life and Ford Tourneo Connect making up 74 per cent of new WAVs supplied via the Motability scheme.

To convert a compact vehicle into a WAV is a complex process, involving removing a large section of the vehicle chassis, and replacing it with a lowered floor, giving more internal space for a wheelchair user to travel in comfort. A host of other adaptations are also required – an access provision either by lift or ramp, as well as tested and approved safety restraints to securely hold the wheelchair in place.

Ford Tourneo WAV Ramp

In addition to creating more space within the vehicle, the lowered floor creates several other benefits for the wheelchair user. Lowering the wheelchair user’s centre of gravity provides a more stable ride – an important feature in the journey experience, and in turn lowers the wheelchair user’s eyeline, giving a better view out of the windows and windscreen, and more headroom for a feeling of spaciousness.

In current petrol and diesel WAVs it is even possible to lower the floor through to the second or first row of seats – enabling the wheelchair user to travel inclusively with friends and family in equal comfort and safety.

A flat, level lowered floor is preferred, as it promotes better posture for the wheelchair user – especially important for those whose disability mandates the use of a posture-optimised wheelchair, people with spinal injuries or those looking for comfort over longer journeys.

Toyota Proace Wheelchair

The Battery Problem

Here lies the issue that WAV convertors face when developing electric vehicles. Electric vehicle manufacturers most often place the large vehicle batteries – along with their necessary safety and cooling equipment – under the vehicle floor, between the vehicle’s two axles, and in the raised areas under the rear seats; exactly the area usually occupied by the lowered floor of a WAV conversion.

battery under floor

Engineering challenges are nothing new for WAV convertors, who will adopt new ways of working to convert fully electric vehicles. Engineers working on battery vehicles require specialist tools, protective equipment, and training. The greater obstacle for WAV convertors at present are regulatory constraints presented by vehicle manufacturers and legislators alike.

Unlike a petrol or diesel vehicle, which will often be modified in some way by the WAV Convertor, whether changing the exhaust routing or replacing the fuel tank with a unit that fits alongside the lowered floor, Electric Vehicle manufacturers at present prohibit the modification of the large battery packs.

Due to the size and complexity of the battery packs it is also unlikely to be feasible to relocate the battery anywhere else – a significant obstacle for companies seeking to convert these vehicles into suitable transportation for wheelchair users.

Regulatory constraints including additional crash testing, fire resistance and protection against charging malfunctions also come into play should convertors relocate or otherwise modify the battery location – the necessary certification and approval for which costing hundreds of thousands of pounds.

Combined with the higher purchase price of base electric vehicle (approximately £10,000 when compared to an equivalent ICE-powered vehicle), the result is a drastically increased cost to the customer, and much higher Advance Payments for electric Wheelchair Accessible Vehicles on the Motability scheme.

Research into the development of independently manufactured WAV-specific battery packs has also shown to be unfeasible for adaptation companies due to the extremely high costs and technological restrictions of ‘white-label’ battery manufacturing.


As a result, the immediate future of the electric Wheelchair Accessible Vehicle is likely to be one of compromise – with buyers opting for electric power likely having to forgo either the compact size, internal space, comfortable ride, or inclusion that can be enjoyed in equal amounts with a petrol- or diesel-powered vehicle. WAV conversion companies will only be able to work around the bulky floor-mounted battery packs, limiting the design of new WAVs and reducing consumer choice.

Small electric Wheelchair Accessible Vehicles are likely to be extremely limited in terms of internal space and ride quality. With wheelchair access restricted to the small area behind the rear seats and battery pack, the conversion is likely to be restricted to smaller wheelchairs and those requiring a minimal amount of headroom – and of course content to sit at the very rear of the vehicle. Initial design studies have also shown that any small electric vehicle is likely to feature an extreme slope for the floor of the wheelchair location – undesirable and uncomfortable for the majority of wheelchair passengers.

electric wav layout

Medium size electric Wheelchair Accessible Vehicles are more feasible – as Brotherwood demonstrated back in 2015 with their conversion of the Nissan eNV-200 fully electric WAV. Whilst the longer space at the rear of the vehicle behind the battery enables the fitment of a flat, level floor, interior space and inclusion are still limited – with the wheelchair user located at the very rear of the vehicle experiencing a more isolated journey apart from friends and family in front.

Many WAV buyers will therefore be pushed towards the largest category of vehicle if they wish to go electric. Only by resorting to the medium/large and large commercial vehicle-based EVs will wheelchair users be able to benefit from the internal space and inclusion that today’s compact ICE powered Wheelchair Vehicles can offer. However, most buyers would prefer a smaller, easier to drive vehicle with a compact footprint more suitable for day-to-day driving and parking.

 “In short, the result for consumers will be a smaller choice of less capable vehicles, at a much higher price.”

Future Development

Looking at the longer term, the potential exists for the development of a greater range of electric Wheelchair Accessible Vehicles before 2030. However, it is dependent on vehicle manufacturers working more closely with Stage 2 Vehicle Adaptation companies, including WAV convertors, to enable more research into how electric vehicles can be manufactured to allow greater flexibility in conversion design.

Without this co-operation, affordable access to a wide choice of suitable transportation for wheelchair users is likely to be greatly reduced by the banishment of ICE powered vehicles from the UK’s roads.


Is the WAV market ready for electric Wheelchair Accessible Vehicles?

The question remains unanswered!

Only time will tell…


Dementia care – how to use storyboards

Dementia Carers Count look at how this valuable creative tool can be used at home



Do you know that people living with dementia often process visual stories and information better than verbal communication?

Misunderstandings, distress, fear and worry all impact heavily on us and can place strain on relationships. Visual aids such as storyboards can help maintain mental wellbeing for both the person with dementia and for the carer.

Sue Hinds, head of services at Dementia Carers Count, takes us through a range of techniques that carers can adopt (or adapt).

When and why visual support might be useful

There may be times when you need to support a person with dementia in attending events which are important to them. This might include appointments with the GP or other services, family events, shopping excursions, planning a trip and opportunities to engage in hobbies and pastimes.

We know that people with dementia often have challenges in both understanding information provided to them and/or retaining the information for long enough for it to be meaningful.

Carers tell us that a range of situations and emotions can arise. This could include the person with dementia refusing to go because they genuinely believe they were never told about it. Anxiety about where they are going, confusion, disorientation, agitation, distress, tearfulness, a sense of unease, and many more emotions can all emerge.

These situations can also provoke a range of emotions for you as a carer including stress, worry, fear, frustration, and anger.

Things we know:

  • Providing information in bitesize chunks can help a person with dementia.
  • Providing visual reminders can help.
  • Visual information is often better understood than verbal information.
  • Visual information can be referred back too, spoken descriptions (unless recorded are fleeting).
  • Step-by-step instructions help.
  • Visual formats can help a person express their concerns more clearly.

What are story boards?

Image of a storyboard example to use with someone with dementia

Storyboards are one way to help support a person to understand, remember and engage fully with a meaningful visit, event or routine either inside or outside the home. They can capture key elements and stages of an event with images which can help the person to understand the event and will help to describe the actions at each stage.

By creating a storyboard, it can help you to identify all the stages and can help you think about what situations might arise, and can support a person with dementia to express areas which give them concerns.

Often storyboards can then be adapted or used again for other events.

Misunderstandings, distress, fear and worry all impact heavily on us and can place strain on relationships, and a storyboard can help maintain mental well being for both the person with dementia and the carer.

They provide a way to cope, help to maintain relationships and provide a new way of coping with challenges – providing a new way of thinking, behaving and interacting together even when things are tough.

How to create a storyboard

Generally, a story board can look how you want it to look, but they should not have too much information on a page as this can be overwhelming.

You may wish to create a storyboard on one page, or a storybook where you flick from one page to the next, or even a storymat where you can add, remove drop things down into a ‘we are here now’ section.

Follow the steps:

Think about the task e.g. Going to the doctors, and then think of all the steps which will happen (this is unique to your own routine):

For example:

  • We need to get up and out of bed at 8am
  • We will go downstairs
  • We will have breakfast
  • We will go to the bathroom and have a wash
  • Clean teeth
  • Get dressed
  • Go to the car
  • Travel to the surgery
  • Wait in the waiting room
  • Go in to see the doctor and talk to the doctor
  • Say goodbye and leave the surgery
  • Get back in the car and drive home
  • Arrive home
  • Sit down in the kitchen for a cup of tea and a cake

Ideas of things you can use to help you

There are lots of symbols and resources which you can purchase to help with this, but a good tip is to also take photos within your own home and when you are out and about with the people and places you visit. This will help you to tell the story with as many familiar pictures as possible.

It’s also often worth taking photos during a familiar event so these can be used in the future.  However, if you need some symbols there are various sites you can purchase them from and I have listed a couple below.

The creative visual aids website also gives a wonderful explanation of how visual aids can be used to support children, but the principles are exactly the same. The video below talks about the use of storyboards with children and I am currently in discussion with Gina regarding storyboards for people with dementia.

Talking Mats is another incredibly useful resource for supporting conversations, with videos and case studies of how visual aids can help a person with dementia in conversation and day to day life.

Good luck creating one, and have fun – we would love to hear from you with photos, descriptions and stories of how and when you use them. Perhaps you could also inform other carers through our forum: Virtual Carers Centre | Dementia Carers Count

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Supporting mental and physical needs in complex dementia

St Andrew’s Healthcare look at the importance of meeting the needs of this client group



Designed to recreate the feel of a village environment with a post office, pillar box, village hall, bandstand and bus stop, Lowther’s outside space helps to maintain familiar routines, encourage activities and provide essential distractions and engagement

In supporting the mental and physical healthcare needs of people living with complex dementia, specialist expert support is vital to achieving the best possible quality of life. 

St Andrew’s Healthcare is renowned for its work in this area and for its support of people and their families. Based within its Northampton site, the St Andrew’s neuropsychiatry service supports people with the most complex neuropsychiatric needs.

The service extends across Kemsley, the hospital’s brain injury unit, which has pioneered specialist neurobehavioural care since it opened over 40 years ago, and Lowther dementia hub, a bespoke environment opened in 2020 that is designed to meet the needs of people living with complex dementia and other progressive neurological conditions.

Working with older people within a neuropsychiatric service requires a range of specialisms. Here, we meet two of the multi-disciplinary team at St Andrew’s as they explain the importance of meeting the mental health, but also the physical health, needs of this particular patient cohort. 


Muthusamy Natarajan, consultant forensic psychiatrist

My name is Muthusamy Natarajan, I’m a consultant forensic psychiatrist and also clinical director for the neuropsychiatry service at St Andrew’s Healthcare.

How do you approach the care and support of older people in a neuropsychiatric service?

It’s important when working with and supporting older adults with mental health problems to consider how their organic and functional illnesses intertwine and how we progress them in their pathway at St Andrew’s and onward into the community. Connections with the patient’s family are also key so we also need to make sure we work to maintain those links whilst offering support to family members too.                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

We have a lot of our patients who are living with dementia and obviously communication with those who are caring for them is a tricky challenge sometimes and making sure that their voices are heard. We have multiple methods do that including our advocacy services, but also our staff are really experienced and skilled in making sure that the patient’s voice is heard. 

How do we support people living with dementia and complex needs?

In 2020, we opened the Lowther village. The Lowther village was very much a critical part of our ability to deliver the best care for patients who are living with dementia and other complex progressive neurological conditions such as Huntington’s disease. 

The dementia village concept comes from the Netherlands, where the key area of focus is making sure that patients are able to experience familiar activities throughout their journey with dementia and that they are able to link with the community, and that’s what we try to do. Our aim is to make sure that patients have the least possibility of feeling like they are in an inpatient setting and that includes people who are on Mental Health Act sections and Deprivation of Liberty Safeguards (DoLS).

What key interventions do you use when working with people living with dementia?

When somebody comes to us, we carry out a comprehensive multidisciplinary assessment that is the basis of their care and treatment. 

An individual might require specific psychological therapies and that may include things like reminiscence therapy, individual sessions to look at what their actual cognitive impairment is meaning for them on a day to day basis and we will use tools such as life story work. 

One of the key things we will look at when an individual comes to us is what activities and supports are going to help them through their journey, and that will include activities within the unit, but it also may include activities within our grounds and also further afield in the community. 

The third intervention is obviously in terms of our medical support, and we have a full complement of doctors, a responsible clinician, a geriatrician who works alongside us and also our specialty doctors and the medical team who look at the treatments we’re offering and make sure that is the most holistic approach to that individual’s care.

Having worked across a number of organisations what do you think makes St Andrew’s different?

What makes St Andrew’s different is that the culture and the organisation are geared to deliver care to very complex patients who come to us. The challenge to us is that we need to be able to demonstrate we can meet the complex care needs of our patients and ensure their journey is delivered in the best possible way and that we maintain our links with the carers and family for that patient. St Andrew’s does that incredibly well, and it does it holistically and in some ways, effortlessly. So building on that is a key area I think within the neuropsychiatry division and also within the charity as a whole. 

Parul Shah, consultant geriatrician

My name is Parul Shah, I’m a consultant geriatrician, and I joined the St Andrew’s neuropsychiatry multi-disciplinary team in February 2021.

As a consultant geriatrician, what is your role within the neuropsychiatry team at St Andrew’s?

My role as a consultant geriatrician within the team is to pick up on the subtleties of medical issues amongst our older adult cohort of patients and implement proactive management of their conditions so that patients don’t deteriorate any further with their physical health, reducing visits to acute hospitals and improving their safety whilst they are in our care here.  

What are some of the key areas of focus for you with St Andrew’s neuropsychiatric service?

One of my key areas of focus is to improve the overall strategy for older people’s health within the neuropsychiatry service with a particular emphasis on identifying frailty. Older people are often living with multiple conditions, and as they physically decline people become frailer, if we identify this and are aware of increasing frailty we can put approaches into practice such as exercise programmes and lifestyle changes that may prevent people’s physical health deteriorating.

Sometimes our patients exhibit very advanced stages of frailty, and then we need to recognise that they may be approaching end of life and that maintaining their quality of life is of prime importance, rather than necessarily focusing on physical health care interventions.

So I think that’s one of my main aims; to provide comprehensive assessments to older patients and identify why they’re getting frailer. If there are no reversible factors we then need to think about how to make them more comfortable and make the right decisions for them in their best interest by involving them.

To find out more about the St Andrew’s neuropsychiatry service visit: Neuropsychiatry services » St Andrew’s Healthcare (

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The impact of stress on sleep

Dr David Lee at Sleep Unlimited offers advice on how to reduce stress and improve sleep



In response to acute stress, our body produces adrenaline, to help us with the fight or flight response.

When our body perceives there is an immediate threat to our lives, this activates our Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) to increase our heart rate, respiratory rate, stop non-essential functions such as digestion and produce stress hormones.

During acute stress you may experience issues falling asleep and entering the restorative sleep stage as your body believes your life is in danger and so prevents you from entering a deep sleep in case you need to fight or flee during the night.

Once the threat has diminished the Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS) is activated to lower our heart rate, respiratory rate and stop the production of stress hormones.

Evolutionarily this response was useful as we had to fight for survival if, for example, a bear was going to attack us. However, now our stressors tend to be due to relationships, financial stresses, or work-related stress. Things we are unable to run from, which can cause long term stress and SNS dominance.

Long term stress increases our cortisol production. Cortisol is normally at its highest peak in the morning to help us wake up, get out of bed, and have enough energy for the day. Levels of cortisol steadily decrease during the day, reaching its lowest point at around 10pm. This is so we are relaxed and able to fall asleep.

When cortisol levels are low, the PNS is activated during sleep, and we enter the restorative period of sleep. Cortisol levels start to slowly rise again at around 2am. If you are experiencing long-term stress, you may wake up at around 2am/3am as cortisol levels are already high.

To help reduce stress, you need to allow your body to feel safe. Here are some tips to help reduce stress and improve sleep:

  • Stick to a good sleep routine but try to go to bed earlier rather than later. If we are constantly stressed the PNS system may only be dominant during times we are asleep. As PNS is only dominant until around 2am, going to bed around 10pm will provide you enough time to rest and restore. 
  • In times of acute stress, exercise is important, so we move our bodies as if we are acting upon the fight or flight response. However, in terms of long-term stress more restorative exercise, such as yoga, may be helpful as this activates our PNS. High-intensity exercise activates our SNS as it increases our heart rate and respiratory rate, so try to incorporate restorative exercises into your routine as well. Remember exercise outside in the morning is better as it increases melatonin production for release later in the day to help you fall asleep.
  • Try deep belly breathing when you are feeling stressed to helps you to feel relaxed. When we are stressed, we tend to breathe short quick breaths from our chest instead of long deep breaths from our stomach.
  • Allocate time during the day to write down your worries and your to-do list as this will prevent you from worrying about them as you try to fall asleep.
  • Try to reduce caffeine intake. When we do not enter the restorative stage of sleep, we can wake up feeling unrefreshed and groggy, this can cause us to make a cup of coffee to increase our energy. However, caffeine also increases cortisol so try to reduce the amount of caffeine you consume, at least try to stop caffeine intake after lunchtime as this can increase difficulty in falling asleep. If you improve your sleep practices you are likely to feel refreshed in the morning, making it easier to reduce your caffeine intake.
  • Avoiding screens and working in the 2 hours before bed allows us to wind down and help us to switch from SNS to PNS. If we engage in work or see something on social media that causes our stress levels to rise, then this may cause us difficulty falling asleep.

*  Dr David Lee BSc PhD CertEd CPsychol AFBPsS CSci is clinical director at Sleep Unlimited

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