Connect with us
  • Elysium


Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation: A Legacy of Hope



The inspiration Christopher Reeve gave to people living with spinal cord injury during his life is being continued by the Foundation that bears his name, with the quest to find a cure for paralysis moving closer by the day. NR Times speaks to Maggie Goldberg, President and CEO of the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation, about its world-leading research to change the future, coupled with a commitment to supporting people who need help today

“So many of our dreams at first seem impossible, then they seem improbable, and then, when we summon the will, they soon become inevitable.”

Christopher Reeve’s words, while applicable to so many situations in life, resonate more closely with the spinal cord injured community with every passing day. 

Once regarded as a permanent status, with little to no hope of recovery, pioneering research now underway into finding cures and treatments for paralysis is helping to change the outlook of millions of   people around the world.  

And from being widely credited as putting a human face on spinal cord injury since his equestrian accident in 1995, bringing the issue to the fore globally and laying bare the reality of paralysis, the role Christopher – known and loved by so many as Superman – played in challenging the accepted norm during his lifetime is being carried forward by the Foundation that bears his name. 

Maggie Goldberg, President and CEO

Now synonymous with fighting the cause of people living with spinal cord injury, the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation continues to break down barriers in what is possible, delivering on its dual mission statement of Today’s Care. Tomorrow’s Cure. ®  

Offering a wealth of practical support and resources to individuals and caregivers across the world via its website, as well as making grants to non-profit organisations across the United States, for the past 19 years, it has been changing lives through its National Paralysis Resource Center (PRC). 

Co-founded by Dana Reeve to support the millions of people – like herself – seeking information and a centralised place to seek practical and emotional support in their day-to-day lives, the PRC continues to be the only national program that directly serves the 5.4 million Americans living with paralysis.

Each year, the Foundation supports three million people virtually, with around 110,000 people receiving one-on-one personal support since the establishment of the PRC. 

But in its quest to change the future, its support of research – to which it has committed approximately $140 million – is giving hope and accelerating progress across a full spectrum of spinal cord research from basic science to clinical trials and real-world treatments. 

“At one time, spinal cord injury was really seen as the graveyard of neuroscience. People didn’t have hope,” Maggie Goldberg, President and CEO of the Reeve Foundation, tells NR Times. 

“We believe spinal cord injury is curable, and we’re now taking multiple ‘shots on goal.’ We’ve always been very traditional in funding academic research, but now we are trying to get into humans as quickly as possible. This is a very exciting time.” 

And through its approach, more wide-ranging than ever before, the Reeve Foundation is stepping up its efforts to bring this new-found hope for people with paralysis to reality. 

Investments have been made in some of the most promising businesses in neuroscience and biotech – from ONWARD, creators of the spinal cord stimulation ARC Therapy, whose first device is set to be launched within the next two years, through to early-stage Axonis Theraputics in support of its research in breakthrough drug discoveries. 

And through the groundbreaking, The Big Idea project, the next generation of neuromodulation is being fast-tracked and brought closer to reality every day. From its launch in 2014, the first epidural stimulation implant was made in 2018 – 22 people to date, all of whom live with paralysis, have now received such implants. The study will be fully enrolled with 36 patients by July 2022. 

“The study was designed with stakeholders in mind, individuals living with paralysis due to spinal cord injury, with a goal to improve cardiovascular ability and provide advances in stepping and standing,” says Maggie, who recently became President and CEO of the Foundation after long being part of its leadership team. 

“But what we are seeing, even though it was not initially part of the study, are improvements in the secondary complications which affect quality of life. There is someone in The Big Idea study who, since being implanted, hasn’t been in hospital in six months.

“This is extremely exciting, and patients are reporting it themselves. We are now seeing what a hugely important component implantables and technology are in both spinal cord injury and the health implications.

“We want to bring this therapy to the wider community, but that is easier said than done. There are a lot of steps. It’s not one size fits all as every single injury is different, but we are focused on continuing our work and providing the evidence.”

With world-leading research underway, the Reeve Foundation continues to do all it can to maximise its potential to the full, and is exploring more opportunities for collaboration. 

“We are a big proponent of coalition building and are excited by work being done by other foundations and we want to work with them. We want to get the most promising therapies into humans as quickly as possible, and are looking at how we can deliver that in a holistic way,” says Maggie. 

But while looking to change the future for people with spinal cord injury, the Reeve Foundation is equally committed to supporting individuals and families now in every way they can. 

“We want to be available to assist when someone is affected by paralysis. We know the devastating impact it has on the individual, their caregivers, family and professionals. Whether it’s providing information, answering questions, peer mentoring, advocacy, we want to give people hope and tools,” says Maggie. 

“In the United States, the type of insurance a person has may determine what therapy, assistance or nursing one may receive once they are integrated back into society, sometimes that varies between state. No matter the situation, our resource center can help connect people with services. Our goal is to help the individual have the highest quality of life through employment, sports, education, or advocacy. 

“This is such a large country and so diverse, some areas are so rural that access to transport is a real issue. In some areas like New York City, we can focus on accessibility for people with paralysis, but in rural Montana or Wyoming, there may not be access to public transport, they may not have access to a rehabilitation facility or to employment if they can’t physically get there. It can be very isolating. 

“We believe social connections are important. After you have a spinal cord injury, you go through a grieving process.  In an instant, everything changes, and the way you interact with society may not be the same. Some people may not even be able to go back to their home. We look at every aspect of how we can be available to assist.” 

And while delivering support and, crucially, hope to people living with spinal cord injury around the world, the Reeve Foundation is also committed to continuing the work of Christopher Reeve in raising awareness and changing perceptions of paralysis. 

Both Christopher, who passed in 2004, aged only 52, and Dana, who tragically lost her life to lung cancer at 44 just two years later, worked tirelessly to change the lives of millions of people, and alter the awareness around paralysis for millions more. 

Maggie shares this priority and is committed to ensuring this continues to be at the heart of the Reeve Foundation. 

“My passion is to help others understand why this cause is so important, why they should care about it,” she says. 

“When I was 16, I broke my neck in a car accident and had to wear a brace for six months. Doctors told me it was a matter of centimeters, or my injury could have been the same as Christopher Reeve. 

“Spinal cord injury is still not well understood, and there is the civil rights issue too. We have an incredible team, and we’re all doing all we can to address the myriad components of care and cure within our community.”


Electrical stimulation improves arm control in paralysed monkeys

Groundbreaking research highlights the impact on upper limb motor control



Electrical stimulation of surviving nerves of the upper spinal cord damaged by severe injury can improve motor control of the upper limb and allow those with limited arm function to partially regain lost movement, groundbreaking new research has revealed. 

In a study with macaque monkeys, analysis showed that, while not enough to restore the arm function completely, stimulation significantly improved precision, force and range of movement, allowing each animal to move its arm more efficiently. 

Importantly, the animals continued to improve as they adapted and learned how to use stimulation.

“To perform even the simplest arm movement, our nervous system has to coordinate hundreds of muscles, and replacing this intricate neural control with direct electrical muscle activation would be very difficult outside a laboratory,” said senior author Dr Marco Capogrosso, assistant professor of neurological surgery and member of the Rehabilitation and Neural Engineering Labs at the University of Pittsburgh. 

“Instead of stimulating muscles, we simplified the technology by designing a system that uses surviving neurons to restore the connection between the brain and the arm via specific stimulation pulses to the spinal cord, potentially enabling a person with paralysis to perform tasks of daily living.”

Deficits in arm and hand mobility—ranging from limitations in bending the wrist to completely inability to move the arm—can severely impact a person’s life with even mild deficits to arm and hand function significantly limiting patients’ quality of life and their autonomy, making restoration of upper limb control an important focus in the field of neuro-rehabilitation.

Pitt researchers sought to develop a technology that could activate the remaining healthy nerves connecting the brain and the spinal cord to control muscles of the arm using external stimuli. 

The technology – which follows ONWARD in its groundbreaking use of spinal cord stimulation – also had to be seamless and require little to no training to use, allowing the individuals to continue familiar motor tasks the way they did before their injury.

To test the technology, researchers worked with macaque monkeys with partial arm paralysis who were trained to reach, grasp and pull a lever to receive their favorite food treat.

In addition to brain implants detecting electrical activity from regions controlling voluntary movement, the monkeys were implanted with a small array of electrodes connected to an external stimulator the size of a pencil-top eraser, which were transiently turned on when brain electrodes detected the animal’s intention to move its arm.

“Our protocol consists of simple stimulation patterns that are initiated by detection of the animal’s intention to move,” said co-first author Dr Sara Conti, at Harvard Medical School and Boston Children’s Hospital. 

“We don’t need to know where the animal wants to move; we only need to know that they want to move, and extracting that information is relatively simple. 

“Our technology could be implemented in clinics in many different ways, potentially without requiring brain implants.”

The electrodes and the stimulator’s design and placement—over the nerve roots sprouting from the spinal cord toward the muscles of the arm and hand—were extensively verified using a combination of computational algorithms and medical imaging, ensuring that each animal’s unique anatomy was compatible with the device.

“Taking a step back and tackling a very complex clinical problem from a different and simpler perspective compared to anything that was done before opens more clinical possibilities for people with arm and hand paralysis,” said co-first author Dr Beatrice Barra, visiting scholar at Pitt, currently at New York University. 

“By building a technology around the nervous system that mimics what it is naturally designed to do, we get better results.”

A clinical trial testing whether electrical spinal cord stimulation could improve arm and hand control in patients who have had strokes is recruiting participants at the University of Pittsburgh and UPMC.

Continue Reading


ONWARD launches latest pioneering trial

LIFT Home Study explores potential for its ARC EX spinal cord therapy in a home-based setting



The development of pioneering stimulation therapy for people living with spinal cord injury (SCI) is continuing with ONWARD completing enrolment for its latest groundbreaking trial. 

The LIFT Home Study is designed to study the safety and performance of ONWARD’s ARC EX therapy when used in the home. 

ARC EX works by externally delivering programmed stimulation of the spinal cord to restore strength and function in people with SCI and other movement related challenges.

It has already been in trial in a medical setting through the Up-LIFT pivotal trial enrolling 65 people internationally ahead of schedule, despite the challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic, and is already yielding strong initial results. 

Its ARC IM implantable technology is also in trial, with its STIMO-BRIDGE study enabling three long-paralysed patients to regain the ability to take steps independently after one day, and to swim and/or cycle after five months of rehabilitation. 

The LIFT Home Study has enrolled 17 participants at five leading research centres in the United States – Craig Hospital in Denver, Colorado; Shepherd Center in Atlanta, Georgia; Spaulding Research Institute in Boston, Massachusetts; University of Minnesota, and University of Washington. 

Participants were followed for four weeks to assess whether continued access to ONWARD’s ARC EX therapy is safe and can be used to achieve long-term benefit.

The trial builds further on the commitment of ONWARD, based in Lausanne in Switzerland, to regain function and independence for those living with SCI. Plans remain on track for its ARC EX technology to be commercialised next year.

Dr Candy Tefertiller, executive director of research and evaluation at Denver’s Craig Hospital is primary investigator, and said: “The LIFT Home Study is an important next step in understanding the potential benefits people with spinal cord injury may derive from continued access to ARC Therapy outside the clinic.

“We are pleased enrolment is now complete and we look forward to completing follow-up activities.”

“We are grateful to collaborate with these outstanding researchers to investigate new potential benefits and care settings for our ARC EX therapy,” said Dave Marver, CEO of ONWARD. 

“This is another step in our journey to help people with spinal cord injury regain function and independence.”

Continue Reading


ONWARD – making the impossible possible

CEO Dave Marver discusses its pioneering work in spinal cord injury and the new hope for people living with paralysis



Professor Gregoire Courtine, Dr Jocelyne Bloch, Dave Marver

The concept of three people living with complete paralysis regaining the ability to walk independently is something that, in the very recent past, would have been dismissed as being impossible – but through the work of ONWARD, this one-time ‘impossibility’ is now becoming reality. 

For years, spinal cord injury has been regarded by many as the ‘graveyard of neuroscience’, where hope was in short supply and the outlook for those daring to dream of the day that may change was bleak. 

But now, through the efforts of pioneers who have led the research breakthroughs that are now shaping reality, the ability of technology to change lives is being seen by the whole world, with people watching in amazement as paralysed patients rediscover the ability to move. 

After being implanted with spinal stimulation technology developed by ONWARD – the first time its epidural electrical stimulation (EES) had been trialled in humans – all three participants who were part of the STIMO-BRIDGE trial were able to take steps independently within a single day.

After five months of rehabilitation, they were also able to use their legs to stand, walk, swim, and/or cycle. They also regained control of their trunk muscles. 

Such colossal steps forward in SCI are now giving new hope to people living with paralysis – and are helping to show, rather than being impossible, what could become the new possible for the future. 

“We were very pleased with the results of STIMO-BRIDGE, although we as a company are not going to be pleased with just impacting subjects in a clinical trial,” Dave Marver, CEO of ONWARD, tells NR Times. 

“Our job and our unique role is to scale these therapies so they can provide benefit to hundreds of thousands of people with spinal cord injury around the world. 

“These results show great promise, but we still have a tremendous amount of work to do to achieve our vision.” 

And for ONWARD, that vision is to change the lives of people living with SCI globally, to enable them to enjoy and live their lives in the ways that matter most to them. 

Established in 2014 to focus specifically on SCI, the venture has led truly groundbreaking research into this long-underserved area. 

Founded by neurosurgeon Dr Jocelyne Bloch and Professor Gregoire Courtine, Swiss-based ONWARD has taken decades of research and translational science to bring to fruition two viable commercial solutions. 

With its ARC EX and ARC IM devices, ONWARD – backed by many of the leading European life sciences venture capital investors – has led the charge on redefining the outlook for SCI patients. 

Its ARC IM, recently subject to the STIMO-BRIDGE trial, consists of an implantable pulse generator and lead that is placed near the spinal cord, controlled by wearable components and a smartwatch. A pivotal trial is set to begin within the next 12 to 18 months. 

The ARC EX is an external, non-invasive wearable stimulator and wireless programmer, which targets the rediscovery of upper body movement. Currently subject to the international Up-LIFT trial – the largest SCI trial of its kind – it completed enrolment of 65 participants ahead of schedule, despite the many challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Currently being trialled at sites across the world – including in the NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde (NHSGGC), as well as Neurokinex sites in England – the aim, pending necessary approvals, is for a commercial launch in the first half of 2023. 

But while the excitement at the potential of ONWARD is palpable, with the first introduction of its technology into rehabilitation centres across the United States, UK, France, Germany and the Netherlands potentially barely a year away, Dave is keen to ensure expectations remain realistic.  

“Certainly this will give hope to people, and I think the fact we enrolled all 65 subjects in Up-LIFT ahead of schedule, despite all the challenges of clinics closing and difficulties with quarantines and so forth, speaks to the enthusiasm that the clinical community has for this therapy,” he says.

“They have really embraced it, as the participants did in STIMO-BRIDGE. We, and they, are showing what is possible. 

“But I do think it’s important to not overstate it, I don’t want to create false hope, because these subjects really committed themselves to the therapy and to the rehabilitation process. 

“I think there is great potential that many people with paralysis will be able to stand again with the benefit of our therapies, maybe take some steps. But then it really depends on their particular circumstances and their overall level of health, their willingness to commit to rehabilitation, whether they can go further than that. 

“And, of course, not everyone with spinal cord injury, desires necessarily to walk again, they may have other priorities. And that’s why ONWARD is also committed to addressing other challenges that affect the quality of daily life, such as blood pressure and trunk control and use of better use of the upper extremities. 

“And then in the future, we’ll be looking at incontinence and restoration of sexual function, the whole battery of things that people with SCI have to contend with.”

Through its longstanding and deep-rooted commitment to the SCI community, ONWARD has secured relationships with of some of the world’s leading organisations in this area, including the International Spinal Research Trust and the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation. The latter has even become ONWARD shareholders, to help further its pioneering work. 

For Dave, while the word ‘pioneering’ is well-used, for ONWARD, it is also well-earned. 

“I think we are seen as pioneers in this area because we’ve chosen to focus on serving the spinal cord injury community,” he says. 

“It’s a smaller population than other populations with movement-related challenges, like stroke and Parkinson’s, for example. Most businesses orientate toward the largest potential markets, whereas our founders really had a passion for helping people with spinal cord injury. 

“And that remains the core vision, that was their raison d’être, and it’s with that commitment and determination that we have achieved such progress. 

“We haven’t partnered with existing spinal cord stimulation companies, we’ve developed our own technology platform that is built for the specific purpose of not stimulating the spinal cord for pain management, but stimulating the spinal cord to restore strength and function.

“But I think the progress we have made also reflects the close collaboration that we enjoy and value with our scientific partners. We have a group of people so committed and driven by our mission, which I think is why we make the progress we have done. 

“We develop that lead together in a very rigorous way, with our vision at the heart of that.”

Constantly looking to the next innovation and how its technologies can be even more beneficial to those who need them, ONWARD is also considering how, post-commercial launch, its ARC EX could be used remotely. 

“Later, we’ll be seeking approval for it to be used in people’s homes, so they can conduct periodic sessions maybe once or twice a week in their homes to continue gains that they have observed in the clinic, and build on those gains,” says Dave. 

“We’ll be looking at a successor study to Up-LIFT which would look at safety and performance when used in the home. 

“Without question, it’s important with spinal cord injury to be able to operate this technology, which is why we were keen to incorporate voice activation into the system. Both of our platforms can be programmed by the clinician, but in the future may be operated by and used by the injured with their voices. 

“But very importantly, we do our best to connect as frequently as possible with people with injury to inform the design of our product platforms, and inform our future direction as a company. 

“We consider ourselves part of the community, so that feedback to ensure the design of our technologies is really usable and accessible, in my view, is vitally important.”

And with such huge advances and new-found hope for the future, many conversations have turned to whether SCI may be curable. 

“I wouldn’t rule anything out, with human ingenuity and so forth, but what I would say is more realistic at this point is to have optimism – quite a bit of optimism – that movement and strength and function can improve, and in some cases, be restored with the benefit of therapies like ours,” says Dave. 

“Perhaps other therapies and technologies will emerge, if you look at how far we have come. But for us, our vision is to support the SCI community around the world through our therapies, and we’ll continue to do that. 

“We’re making steady progress across all areas of our plan, and while what we’re doing is difficult and complex, I’m confident we will come through.”

Continue Reading


Sign up for the NR Times newsletter
I would like to receive by email other offers, promotions and services from Aspect Publishing Ltd and its group companies.*