New UK-led research has revealed why rapid-acting antidepressants such as ketamine and psilocybin have an immediate and lasting positive effect on mood in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
The study, led by the University of Bristol, found that psilocybin, ketamine and scopolamine can modulate affective biases associated with learning and memory.
The research, published in the journal Science Translational Medicine, was carried out in collaboration with researchers at Compass Pathways, Boehringer Ingelheim, and the University of Cambridge.
Lead study author Emma Robinson is Professor of Psychopharmacology in the School of Physiology, Pharmacology & Neuroscience at Bristol.
She said: “Using a behavioural task we showed that drugs that are believed to have rapid and sustained benefits in depressed patients, specifically modulate affective biases associated with past experiences, something which we think is really important for understanding why they can improve a patient’s mood so quickly.
“We also found differences in how ketamine, scopolamine and COMP360 psilocybin interact with these neuropsychological mechanisms which may explain why the effects of a single treatment in human patients can be long-lasting, days (ketamine) to months (psilocybin).”
Negative affective biases are a major feature of MDD.
Affective biases occur when emotions alter how our brain processes information and negative affective biases are thought to contribute to the development and continuation of depression.
The researchers used an affective bias test, based on an associative learning task, to investigate the effects of rapid-acting antidepressants (RAADs) in rats.
The study revealed that all the treatments were able to reduce negative affective biases associated with past experiences but there were additional characteristics of the dissociative anaesthetic, ketamine, and the serotonergic psychedelic, investigational COMP360 psilocybin (Compass Pathways’ proprietary formulation of synthetic psilocybin), which could explain why the effects of a single treatment can be long-lasting.
The discovery suggests that these sustained effects are due to adaptive changes in the brain circuits which control affective biases, and these can influence how we remember past experiences.
The effects at low doses were very specific to affective bias modulation and were localised to the prefrontal cortex of the brain – a region known to play an important role in mood.
In the task, each rodent learned to associate a specific digging material with a food reward under either treatment or control conditions.
The treatment condition is designed to generate a change in the rodent’s affective state and a choice test is used to quantify the affective bias this generates.
Acute treatment with the RAADs ketamine, psilocybin or scopolamine prevented the retrieval of the negative affective bias induced in this model.
But the most exciting finding was at 24 hours after treatment when low, but not high, doses of ketamine and psilocybin led to a re-learning effect where the negatively biased memory was retrieved with a more positive affective valence.
Only psilocybin, but not scopolatime or ketamine treatment, also positively biased new experiences.
Exploring in more detail the re-learning effects of ketamine in the studies, the research team found they were protein synthesis-dependent, localised to the medial prefrontal cortex and could be modulated by cue-reactivation, consistent with their predictions of experience-dependent neural plasticity.
The findings suggest a neuropsychological mechanism that may explain both the immediate and sustained effects of RAADs, potentially linking their effects on neural plasticity with mood.
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